Scroll over the chart above for more detail.

Download the Excel file for full multi-year provincial import/export data.

Where is this data from?

This data is published by the PRC Customs Administration, as aggregated by the Korea International Trade Association's K-stat service. Data for Heilongjiang province has been modified to reflect estimated Chinese crude oil exports to North Korea, which have not been reported since 2013. For 2016, crude oil exports are estimated at $230 million.

Full export and import data for Chinese provincial trade with North Korea, going back to 1998, is available for download in the chart above.

How reliable is this data?

As with any mirror trade statistics with North Korea, this data should be taken with a grain of salt, as it excludes trade in services, illicit activities, informal border trade, unreported aid, etc..., and is subject to errors or discrepancies on the part of reporting agencies.  Additionally, this data does not account for "cost, insurance, and freight" adjustments, which means that North Korea may be paying more than reported for its imports to cover shipping-related costs, and may be receiving less income than reported for its exports, as shipping-related costs paid by Chinese importers are incorporated into the prices reported in the data.

Which Chinese provinces are North Korea's main trading partners?

The two Chinese provinces bordering North Korea -- Jilin and Liaoning -- are by far its biggest trading partners, accounting for the majority of North Korea's reported trade with China. Heilongjiang, also in Northeast China, is the source of China's crude oil exports to North Korea (via the Daqing oil field), but does not conduct a particularly large volume of other trade with North Korea. The remainder of North Korea's reported trade with China is mostly conducted with China's coastal provinces, with most of this trade presumably flowing between Chinese and North Korean ports; Shandong province has the highest level of trade for a province not contiguous to North Korea.